The Workers Village Project:
Incorporating Heritage Buildings into Urban Regeneration
Hernandez Lopez, Paul Wakefield, Carolina Trujillo,
Workers Village in the Tiexi district of the city of Shenyang, China,
was identified as a key project for urban revitalization and
strengthening of urban heritage. It became part of the EU-China Liaoning
Integrated Environmental Program (LIEP),
launched in September 1999. LIEP ran for five years, with a total
investment value of almost 50 million Euros; it is considered the
European Union’s largest and most complex technical cooperation program
in China to date.
developing the Workers Village project, Avenue TWC,
an EU consultancy, based its plans on the conservation and housing
rehabilitation strategy developed by the respective working groups of
LIEP. The strategy focuses on a village of 118,000 square meters that
is considered a heritage asset of the Russian period of occupation.
This area was designated one of eight housing conservation areas in
Shenyang and suffers from a high degree of physical and social
Workers Village project was one of three strategic projects developed by
Avenue TWC for the regeneration of the Tiexi district. The project was
set up as a symbol of urban regeneration, sustainability, and
strengthening of urban heritage. It involved the development of a master
plan that would ensure the conservation of this heritage asset and
promote the creation of a new vibrant, sustainable urban area.
following essay centers on the Master Plan developed for the
conservation area of Workers Village. Special consideration is given to
the project’s background, which involves the heritage and urban
regeneration strategy for Shenyang and the Tiexi district developed
Location: The City of Shenyang
Workers Village is located in the city of Shenyang, China. The city,
with a total population of approximately 7 million inhabitants, is the
largest city in northeast China and the country’s fifth largest city.
It is the administrative center of Liaoning province as well as its
economic and cultural heart.
Shenyang is situated approximately 800 kilometers northeast of Beijing.
To the east, Liaoning province borders Korea and is close to Japan; to
the north, it is close to Russia. Shenyang has the biggest civil airport
in northeast China and is a key communication hub for railways as well
as road transport in Liaoning province. Shenyang was once the imperial
capital of the Manchu emperors and is now an important center for
manufacturing and tertiary education.
rich built heritage has enabled Shenyang to develop into a fine modern
city with not only a glorious past but also a distinct regional identity
and continued cultural relevance. Liaoning province, and Shenyang in
particular, was at the heart of China’s industrial revolution. During
the 1950s and 1960s Shenyang boasted one of the largest concentrations
of heavy industry. Since then, however, technological advances,
globalization, and shifts in the world economy have rendered many of the
city’s plants obsolete and precipitated the difficult process of
industrial restructuring. At the same time, growing environmental
awareness has prompted major investment in cleaner production methods
and more stringent pollution control.
Today Shenyang is at the heart of China’s drive towards a socialist
market economy. The city’s new urban economy will increasingly be based
on light manufacturing, services, and information technology. The
resources required to fund this transition will be found more and more
through stock market capitalization.
Regarding city planning, the municipal government has a vision of a
vigorous, sustainable city based on well-paid, modern sector jobs, with
good housing and a full range of urban facilities and efficient public
services. This vision is enshrined in the 10th Five Year Plan and the
Shenyang Master Plan of 2010. The current master plan, which was
approved in December 1999, has established a sound strategic planning
framework for the city.
Shenyang there is a multitude of new housing developments, almost
exclusively of multistory design. The building of new housing
developments is made possible, in part, by the demolition of existing
housing stock that is considered obsolete and not warranting
above-mentioned expansion of Shenyang’s housing stock has taken place
despite large-scale demolition of older housing. According to data from
the Construction Commission, more than 8 million square meters of
housing was demolished between 1991 and 2000. Some of this was
commercial redevelopment, but it is probable that the great majority of
demolitions were for residential projects by work units and private
seems likely that the rate of demolition in Shenyang and other Chinese
cities involves a needless waste of valuable capital assets. At present,
the prime demolition targets are the old single story houses and
apartment buildings that date from the 1950s. Many newer buildings have
also been demolished because of the incentives for work units to set up
redevelopment agreements with private developers. It may be that most of
the remaining 1950s buildings are beyond salvation.
Heritage in Shenyang
Shenyang was once the imperial capital of the Manchu emperors; it is a
historic city with a colorful history. China’s last feudal dynasty, the
Qing (1644-1911), originated here. The architectural legacy of the
period includes many fine buildings and complexes. The city holds some
of China’s most important cultural and architectural heritage,
particularly the imperial palace of the Qing dynasty in downtown
Shenyang and the two imperial tombs, respectively at the northern and
the eastern outskirts of the city. It has been estimated that in 2001
Shenyang attracted about 180,000 travelers who came primarily because of
the city’s cultural heritage.
During the period leading up to the People’s Revolution in 1949,
Shenyang experienced repeated occupation by foreign powers. Today, many
significant Sino-Japanese and Sino-Russian buildings have been
incorporated into the contemporary urban fabric.
city is associated with the architectural mix of the Imperial Palace,
which combines Han, Manchu, Mongolian, and Tibetan architectural styles.
Splendid though this architecture is, it is found only in a few
locations and has not generally influenced the appearance of the rest of
the city. The architectural character of Shenyang is based on more
recent history and the tides of foreign influences that have swept
across this region. Thus, the principal influences through the twentieth
century were Japanese and Russian styles. The Japanese were particularly
prolific builders in the city.
There is no obvious correlation between design quality and building
condition in Shenyang, suggesting that many fine buildings have already
been lost. It appears that concepts of conservation, aside from the
preservation of a few distinguished monuments, have been regarded as an
unnecessary luxury or, as during the Cultural Revolution, simply
irrelevant. However, there is still an adequate stock of heritage assets
to ensure that Shenyang develops into a fine city with not only a
glorious past but also a distinct regional identity with continuing
rapid pace of redevelopment within Shenyang has taken a heavy toll on
the built heritage. Throughout the area, buildings with character, those
that endow a “sense-of-place,” and those that could be cost-effective to
reuse have been much abused or, more often, simply demolished.
Incorporation of Heritage Buildings in Shenyang's Urban Regeneration
Shenyang’s old buildings provide important links to events of the past:
momentous events in China’s history and local events of significance.
Preservation of built heritage is a measure of a society’s progression
from struggle to self-assurance and reconciliation with its past. Old
buildings, preserved judiciously and adapted to new uses, provide:
an essential element of physical continuity
to retain a link with the past,
an essential contribution to the maintenance
of a distinct regional identity, and
an essential environmental support to social
cohesion and community values.
Perhaps most convincingly, conserving key heritage assets in the urban
landscape adds value to the urban environment overall and particularly
enhances the quality of neighboring new developments. These attributes
of preservation have been demonstrated throughout the world. It is now
conventional wisdom that this obvious fact is only appreciated when the
damage is done and the assets are lost.
many other countries, and indeed in other parts of China, urban
regeneration programs combine new-build with rehabilitation and reuse of
the existing building stock. Indeed, in comparison, the challenge is not
especially difficult in Shenyang. The buildings are not particularly
old, and though construction quality may be poor, it is not especially
Heritage buildings—particularly intact city blocks, coherent facades,
and free-standing villas and mansions—can be integrated into amenity
“open space” and urban landscaping, as venues for public activity,
including commercial pursuits and leisure. These areas can be used to
maintain areas of lower density to support a broader range of essential
public amenities in high-density redevelopment areas.
Workers Village Project
Workers Village is located in the district of Tiexi. It is an existing
village of 118,000 square meters that is considered to be a heritage
asset from the Russian period of occupation. The Workers Village suffers
from a high degree of physical and social decline, which is why
immediate steps are necessary to save this heritage asset from
project was conceived under the Shenyang Urban Planning Project (SUPP),
the urban component of LIEP. Based on a thorough analysis, SUPP
consultants selected this neighborhood as a very good example of the
housing of its era, with well-proportioned and nicely detailed
buildings, brick-built with tiled roofs. For its representative
character, the area was designated a conservation area, one of only
eight listed housing areas in Shenyang.
discussions with the Tiexi Restructuring Office it was agreed that the
area was a good candidate for a specific form of renewal proposed by
SUPP. This would involve a mixture of rehabilitation and new-build,
with extensive environmental improvements. However, the high demand for
additional floor-space in Shenyang plus excessive current levels of
demolition required the project to emphasize the rehabilitation of
existing housing in combination with a more intensive use of underused
understood that demonstration projects were needed to prove the utility
of thorough preservation and rehabilitation. The Workers Village was
selected as a demonstration project. It was carefully selected so that
it represented much of the housing built in Shenyang and many other
major industrial cities in China over a period of 50–60 years.
Tiexi is one of the nine urban districts in the city of Shenyang. It is
the main industrial area in the city, and it was formerly one of the
principal concentrations of heavy industry in China’s northeast.
district is a classic example of a traditional industrial district
dominated by large-scale, labor intensive, underutilized, inefficient
state-owned heavy industries. For many years it was the industrial
powerhouse of the region, specializing in heavy industry and supported
by technical co-operation with the former USSR. It provided employment
for most working people in the district.
Today however, a substantial portion of that old economic base is
obsolete, and new investment is characterized by a shift to secondary
manufacturing and tertiary services. The area has suffered declining
economic efficiency and heavy job losses as a result. While such changes
have often occurred elsewhere, the scale and pace of the decline in
Tiexi is significant. Stated most succinctly, Tiexi has epitomized both
the environmental problems that result from the uncontrolled emissions
of outdated industries as well as the economic and social problems that
result from the closure of many of these same industries.
Tiexi Restructuring Office was established in 1986 to establish policy
and guide the process of regeneration. Its efforts were largely focused
on the marketing of derelict industrial sites to potential industrial
investors. The advantages of zone-integrated urban regeneration, both
for the local population and for the urban economy, were largely
ignored, and the pace of development was slow.
June 2002 the Shenyang municipal government made the decision to merge
Tiexi with the Zhang Shi Economic and Technological Development Zone.
The development zone had been laid out with high quality infrastructure
and partly occupied by modern industrial enterprises, which had been
attracted by a range of incentives, financial and otherwise. The new
administrative authority, known as the Tiexi New District, is
responsible for urban management, including city planning and the
operation of a “land bank” supported by extensive land acquisition,
disposal, and management powers. This new administrative authority has
set some ambitious regeneration targets, and the responsible agencies
are now committed to meeting these. Polluting industries have been shut
down, and infrastructure upgrading programs are underway. New policies
have been formulated and new plans drawn up.
Today Tiexi New District extends over an area of 94 square kilometers,
accommodating a residential population of approximately 1 million
inhabitants. It has an economic jurisdiction of the same rank as a
municipality. In 2005 the district had a total of 876,572 permanent
residents, and the forecasts for 2010 predict that the district’s
population will come to 1.2 million.
New District is divided into two parts with different functions. One is
the Economic & Technological Development Area, which is to be a modern
industrial area. The other part is the Tiexi district, which is growing
into an area of modern business, comfortable living, developing service
trades, and desirable real estate.
original Tiexi district, with a total area of 40 square kilometers, is
made up of two distinct areas separated by the east-west Jian She Road.
The south part is mainly residential; the north, industrial. The
district is still influenced by the lay out established by the Japanese
during the period of occupation from the late-1920s to 1945. The
occupiers’ legacy is evident in the planning of the area around the
northeast region’s main rail hub, with the industrial area to the west
and Heping commercial and residential area to the east. The barrier of
the rail tracks continues to reinforce major differences in the visual
and social environments, land values, and incomes between the two sides.
Today Tiexi district is continuing the process of transformation from an
industrial area into a modern business and living neighborhood. Since
2002 enterprises in the northern part of the district, approximately 20
square kilometers, are being relocated to the modern industrial area
Shenyang Economic and Technological Development Area.
Project Within LIEP
Through the Liaoning Integrated Environmental Program (LIEP), EU and
Chinese experts worked together on new planning strategies and
implementation programs. They aimed to improve environmental quality
and promote sustainable development in the fields of environmental
awareness, integrated urban planning, water resource management, air
quality management, energy management, cleaner production, industrial
restructuring, and investment promotion.
the city of Shenyang, as elsewhere in the country, complex environmental
planning issues continue to arise during China’s transition to a
market-based economy. The Shenyang Urban Planning Project (SUPP) was
set up to assist the city government in endeavoring toward sustainable
development through the promotion of integrated planning and
co-ordination of policies regarding urban design. This four-year
program was based in the offices of the Shenyang Environmental
Protection Bureau, which lent very substantial support to the project
through counterpart staff and logistical assistance.
project featured a strong environmental emphasis, with a commitment to
improving the quality of life within Shenyang. SUPP employed an
“integrated urban management approach” to maximize public benefits from
emerging development trends and opportunities. At the same time, SUPP
managed public assets and natural resources efficiently, according to
the principles of sustainable development.
Through collaboration, EU consultants, Shenyang city leaders, and local
professionals developed, adopted, and implemented key urban
initiatives. Working groups brought together the various local actors
concerned with different aspects of sustainable urban planning. Through
this working group system, SUPP achieved an extraordinary level of
of the six EU/China interdisciplinary working groups included qualified
experts from various agencies within the municipal government. They
addressed key planning issues in the following sectors: integrated land
use and transportation planning; urban infrastructure and utility
services; housing (new-build, renewal, rehabilitation, and
resettlement); environmental management and natural resources
conservation; built environment, urban design, and heritage
conservation; and city marketing, industrial area planning, and
SUPP and Heritage Conservation Strategy
During the period of the SUPP technical cooperation program, the twin
objectives of good urban design and heritage conservation advanced
considerably throughout the city. Among a wide range of ongoing
initiatives, new uses were found to maintain the economic viability of
important heritage buildings.
important initiative to be developed involved the design of an
integrated set of funding support packages to restore the Imperial
Palace and the Zhaoling and Dongling Tombs to their former glory. To
make this goal a reality, the European Union joined forces with the
World Bank to support the rehabilitation of the Qing Dynasty built
heritage monuments in Shenyang.
working groups additionally contributed to urban upgrade plans for areas
surrounding all the key heritage assets in the city. A significant
percentage of Shenyang’s stock of old buildings, including
representative samples of each period and style, were identified.
importance of well-structured heritage conservation and development
proposals for Shenyang was demonstrated by the following benefits:
Development authorities, residents, and
visitors have an increased knowledge and understanding of the value and
significance of the city’s world-class heritage assets.
Larger numbers of visitors–both
international and domestic–are attracted to the city, with consequent
economic benefits in terms of increased commercial revenues in the
hotel, catering, and retail tourism service sub-sectors.
Shenyang has an enhanced profile to garner
international interest in the history of Shenyang and designation of the
Imperial Palace and the two Qing tombs as a World Heritage site.
The enhanced international profile also
supports internal investment in Shenyang.
The skills base of Shenyang agencies
involved in public design and construction has broadened in relation to
heritage area conservation and new building design in central urban
Real estate values will increase through
more efficient and effective management of land, public space, and
The capacity to manage traffic flow
(pedestrians and vehicles) has improved in relation to the increasing
attraction of a successfully marketed heritage asset and a series of
high quality public spaces.
Replicable strategies and techniques support
public initiatives elsewhere in China.
view of the above, the first step toward an effective heritage
conservation strategy was to establish a consensus on the value of
conserving the city’s key heritage assets as an essential component of
the drive toward socio-economic development and physical regeneration.
Following such agreement, the following principal steps were taken:
1. Step One – Heritage buildings survey:
Commissioning of a new city-wide survey to identify the status and
condition of historic, old, and significant buildings.
2. Step Two – Urban design guidelines:
Development of a locality-specific classification system for Shenyang
that assesses the value and significance of individual built assets in
contextual terms rather than in absolute terms.
3. Step Three – Heritage buildings reuse
strategy: Preparation of a comprehensive set of guidelines for the
redevelopment of conservation areas and the incorporation of old
buildings into new development contexts.
The Conservation Area
Workers Village is located in the south part of the residential
district. It covers around 31 hectares and has an estimated residential
population of 9,500. The project was originally laid out in the 1950s
by a number of separate work units with design and supervision carried
out by Russian technicians. The open spaces are presently in a state of
dilapidation, with no organized maintenance and gardening being carried
out. Individual residents take over parts of these open spaces for
area has the following boundaries:
On the west side, the boundary is the
second ring road, which is one of the most important arteries of
Shenyang. This road is basically ‘façade free’ and allows no access or
egress between controlled crossing points.
On the east is a main street running
north–south connecting the residential areas south of Tiexi Road with
the industrial areas to the north.
The northern boundary is a primary road,
beneath which the future subway will run. Subway stations are planned to
the east and west of the study area.
To the south is a smaller but very active
street with food vendors, street market activities, day-workers offering
their services, and considerable pedestrian traffic.
Workers Village area has the following components, as illustrated in the
1. An open park and garden area to the south
covers some 3.8 hectares, with one and two story bazaar-like buildings
running east–west for the entire length of the site.
2. A zone along the second ring road is
occupied by dilapidated single-story workshops and other commercial
structures of low quality and value. This area is approximately 1.7
3. This community services, utilities, and
commercial corridor connects the east and west boundaries of the study
area. This area contains various establishments, including a primary
school, post office, banks, community center, residents committee
office, neighborhood administration office, supermarket, restaurants,
district heating center, power generating station, and a few housing
blocks. The corridor divides the overall residential area into two: a
north section and a south section of equal size. A service road
separates the corridor from the southern housing area, while the
northern area is separated by a nicely tree-canopied neighborhood
street. The corridor covers some 3.2 hectares.
4. The housing area of the Workers Village
consists of four sections, each of around 4.8 hectares, giving a total
of 19.2 hectares.
4A consists of six different types of four- to five-story blocks, giving
a total of 17 blocks with a construction area of 32,600 square meters.
The area between the blocks is occupied by a two-story elementary
school, a single story water supply office and pump station, and a
number of single story sheds for bicycles and general storage. There are
many large trees.
4B consists of five different types of three- and six-story blocks.
There is a total of 20 blocks with a construction area of 36,720 square
meters. The open space between the blocks is basically bare soil with a
limited number of trees. There is no significant landscaping apart from
small patches of “private “ vegetable and flower gardens in front of
some of the ground floor apartments.
4C consists of five different types of three-story blocks, giving 16
blocks with a total construction area of 22,520 square meters. The large
open space between the blocks is unoccupied apart from a few dilapidated
bicycle sheds and garages. The open space was originally laid out as a
formal garden with a central fountain, a stone sculpture pavilion, and
other features. Area C has the lowest density of the four housing areas
since no infill construction has taken place over the years.
Consequently, it provides a good opportunity to demonstrate how infill
development can be done at an appropriate scale and in harmony with the
4D has six different types of three- and six-story blocks with a total
of 20 blocks and a construction area of 37,440 square meters. The
central part of the space between the original blocks is now occupied by
infill construction of four six-story blocks. The western part is left
open with a formal garden and is evidently quite popular with the
residents as a meeting area. The eastern part is left open with bare
soil, scattered large trees, and a few private gardens.
housing area of the Workers Village is therefore around 129,000 square
meters. Taking an average of 50 square meters per housing unit, 1.1
households per housing unit, and 3 persons per household, this
translates to approximately 2,600 units with around 8,500 residents.
Adding the further 1,000 residents of the Community Services Corridor
gives a total population of approximately 9,500.
for the buildings, the three- to five-story blocks are all of red brick
with pitched, tiled roofs. They were built in the 1950s and are quite
well proportioned and detailed. Some of the blocks have had one or two
extra floors added to the original three, apparently without straining
the structure. In fact, there are hardly any cracks to be seen in any of
the external or internal load bearing walls of the 1950s blocks. In
three of the four areas, there are also some five- to six-story infill
blocks that were built much later. These blocks are visually less
attractive than the three-story blocks, and their designs do not sit
well with the original lower density architecture.
Despite the sound state of their basic structures, all buildings in the
area are in serious disrepair with facades, roofs, balconies, and
staircases extremely run down. Many residents have added makeshift
balconies outside their apartments, which often appear dangerous.
Inside, most apartments still have their original windows, plumbing, and
sanitary fittings, and the decorative condition is poor.
dwellings are nearly all conventional small apartments of around 50
square meters each, in contrast to other units from this period, which
were often single-room bed-living units with communal kitchens and
Workers Village Master Plan:
An Urban Regeneration Strategy for Tiexi
first phase of SUPP concluded at the end of March 2003, but the project
was extended, primarily to focus on formulating specific investment
projects designed to attract external funding. Tiexi district was the
main focus for this activity, as SUPP had been actively engaged there
since late 2001. Since April 2003, SUPP has been directly engaged with
the Tiexi district government in the preparation of marketing packages
for a number of key development opportunities. Avenue TWC, as an EU
consultant group, was responsible for preparing these marketing
Considering the main objective of building a prosperous and sustainable
future for the citizens of Tiexi and Shenyang, Avenue TWC understood
that the most pressing urban management issue facing the district was
urban regeneration. Direct engagement in practical projects was vital to
achieving the objectives of the project.
first phase involved a deep understanding of the previous work
accomplished by the different working groups of SUPP. Based on this
analysis the next step was taken, to understand the urban, social, and
environmental context of Tiexi district. An urban regeneration strategy
for the whole district was developed, with three key urban initiatives
Workers Village project was one of these initiatives. The other two
projects identified were Tiexi Central Park and Tiexi Light Rail. One
involved the regeneration of the area surrounding the main railway
station of the city. With the objective of breaking the physical
barrier between Tiexi and the city, the project started by moving the
railway tracks underground and creating a new urban development
structured around a great new public park. The other initiative, the
Tiexi Light Rail project, involved the recovery of 22.6 kilometers of
obsolete rail tracks, with the goal of introducing an innovative and
sustainable light transport system.
The Master Plan
Avenue TWC; Architectural design:
Berdichevsky-Cherni-Dergarabedian-Parodi. Drawings: Francisco Crespo.
Avenue TWC developed a new master plan for the conservation area of the
Workers Village based on the SUPP heritage conservation strategy –
specifically, the heritage buildings reuse strategy, which involves the
preparation of a comprehensive set of guidelines for redevelopment of
conservation areas and the incorporation of old buildings into new
master plan incorporated the following aspects:
A clear opportunity to revitalize the urban
Transformation of the district without
destroying its cultural symbols and identity.
New uses for an important heritage building
complex to maintain its economic viability.
The development of fine new civic squares
and public open spaces.
Financial viability without a direct
investment from the local authorities.
Avenue TWC; Architectural design:
Berdichevsky-Cherni-Dergarabedian-Parodi. Drawings: Francisco Crespo.
built-up density of the entire conservation area was unrealistically
low, with spaces between buildings the size of soccer fields. Given the
pressures to increase densities described at the beginning of this
paper, a decision was taken to increase the density of the area by
incorporating new buildings within the building complex.
proper balance was established between the existing and new structures.
A strategy and action plan was developed to support the conservation and
refurbishment of the existing housing stock and the grounds. Also, a new
development program was established to introduce new uses that would
promote a new vibrant and sustainable urban area. The new buildings
involved high standards of environmental care and were sensitively
designed to add value to the original buildings.
social strategy was established to contribute substantially to local
identity and sense of place. Common areas and gardens were renewed to
serve community functions, recreation activities, and visual amenity.
Also, new open spaces were created.
financial viability study was carried out so that the project’s
viability could be demonstrated to public and private sectors and the
community involved. It was presented in two international events
organized by Avenue TWC to attract international investment in Tiexi and
Avenue TWC; Architectural design:
Berdichevsky-Cherni-Dergarabedian-Parodi. Drawings: Francisco Crespo.
the events, these basic principles were presented:
Urban transformation without destroying
Conservation, rehabilitation, and
transformation can create new uses and recover public spaces.
Economic viability through the incorporation
of uses allows for the development of a vital and self-sufficient urban
Tiexi is recovering social integration.
historic buildings were lost during the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976
CE) through comprehensive urban renewal, crude maintenance, and
disinterest. But, since then the move to a market economy has fuelled
even more destructive trends. Cash-strapped work units and the
increasingly rapacious private sector seek to maximize profits with
redevelopment, to create higher-return economic uses. This has meant
that the rapid erosion of the heritage asset-base continues apace.
These trends are disastrous for both the urban environment and the
socio-cultural life of the city. Heritage matters, and not just in terms
of adding interest to the urban landscape. Old buildings provide a
direct link to events of the past: momentous events in China’s history
and local events of significance in Shenyang.
considering these qualities of historical witness and continuity, it is
vital that the role of relatively humble domestic architecture be
recognized. The national policy emphasis on state-, provincial-, and
county-level historic monuments has now been modified, and the majority
of recent additions to the official list are residential and “ordinary”
buildings rather than palaces and monuments exclusively. Thus, even
though government policy at both central and local government levels is
increasingly sympathetic towards the conservation of built heritage,
this resolve has yet to be translated into effective implementation.
Regarding the Workers Village conservation area, there is a strong
pressure from local residents and private developers to have the whole
area redeveloped under claims that it is the only way to deal with
dilapidated housing. The workers village project was set up to
demonstrate the social, cultural, and economical viability of
incorporating heritage buildings into urban regeneration. The EU-LIEP
team, and particularly Avenue TWC, hope this objective of sustainable
development for the city can be more widely understood and that the
conservation and revitalization of the Workers Village area
Miguel Hernandez Lopez is Co-Chairman of Avenue TWC and is
one of Europe’s leading city development experts, with particular
experience in urban regeneration and sustainability. Within the LIEP
Program, he directed the team of experts responsible for developing an
Urban Regeneration Strategy for Tiexi District in Shenyang. He has a
degree in Architecture and Town Planning from the Universidad
Politecnica of Madrid. Paul Wakefield is Co-Chairman of Avenue TWC, and an internationally recognized expert in
real estate and urban
development. His experience is based around developing global visions
for the transformation and use of key strategic locations and areas in
the development of the urban environment. His international experience
includes China, Japan, and Europe. Carolina Trujillo is director
for Avenue TWC-China, and an architect specialized in city and regional
planning and urban design. Since 1995 she has worked for the private and
public sector, participating in different urban development projects in
different countries, including Latin America, China and Europe. She has
a degree in Architecture from the University of Los Andes in Colombia
and a Masters of Urban and Regional Planning from the CEU University in
is a city regeneration and marketing expert, with significant
international experience in developing
and investment strategies. She has worked on projects in South
America, Europe and China. In China she developed the
promotional strategy and campaign to promote the regeneration of Tiexi district of Shenyang City.
is a Spanish engineer based in Berlin, Germany. He currently is an
independent property and marketing expert. He has worked as Project
Manager for the architecture studio of the Spanish architect Rafael
Moneo and as head of the property team in the Berlin headquarters of
This paper draws heavily on reports from a range of EU
consultants working under the Liaoning Integrated Environmental
Avenue TWC is a consultancy
group with expertise in the fields of city branding, city
management, and urban regeneration. Avenue TWC brings together
people with experience in the transformation and branding of
cities from all angles, giving it a broad knowledge base that
can be used to support city authorities, private companies, and
the public sector in critical research, strategy, and projects
implementation. Avenue TWC covers a new territory that provides
those involved in city developments with a fresh approach to the
different issues, facing it with expert consultants and constant
updates on how global trends affect "the world of cities".
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